Research Papers


Bridging the gap from medical to psychological safety assessment: consensus study in a digital mental health context

Authors: R. Taher, P. Bhanushali, S. Allan, M. Alvarez-Jimenez, H. Bolton, L. Dennison, B. E. Wallace, H. D. Hadjistavropoulos, C. L. Hall, A. Hardy, A. L. Henry, S. Lane, T. Maguire, A. Moreton, T. R. Moukhtarian, E. Perez Vallejos, S. Shergill, D. Stahl, G. R. Thew, L. Timulak, D. van den Berg, N. Viganò, B. Wensley Stock, K. S. Young, and J. Yiend.

Digital Mental Health Interventions (DMHIs) in the UK are regulated like pharmaceuticals, which may not be ideal. This study with 20 experts generated 41 consensus items, leading to ten recommendations in five themes to enhance adverse event data, redefine serious events, and harmonize safety assessments for DMHIs.

Siobhán Harty, Angel Enrique, Selin Akkol-Solakoglu, Adedeji Adegoke, Hannah Farrell, Graham Connon,Fiona Ward, Conor Kennedy, Derek Chambers and Derek Richards (2023)

Implementing digital mental health interventions at scale: one-year evaluation of a national digital CBT service in Ireland

This study evaluated the first year of a supported digital cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) service provided by the national health service in Ireland, which has been accessible to individuals who receive a referral from one of five referring groups: General Practitioners, Primary Care Psychology, Counselling Primary Care, Community Mental Health, and Jigsaw (a nationwide youth mental health service).

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Daniel Duffy, Derek Richards, Caroline Earley and Ladislav Timulak (2023)

Implementing internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy in healthcare services: a qualitative exploration of stakeholder experience

This study consisted of a qualitative exploration of stakeholder experience regarding the implementation of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) as part of routine service provision within the UK's Improving Access to Psychological Therapies program.

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Camille Nadal, Caroline Earley, Angel Enrique, Corina Sas, Derek Richards, Gavin Doherty (2023)

Patient Acceptance of Self-Monitoring on Smartwatch in a Routine Digital Therapy: a Mixed-Methods Study

In our study published in the ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, we investigated patient acceptance of the Mood Monitor smartwatch app within a routine 8-week iCBT program for depression.

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Chi Tak Lee; Siobhan Harty; Adedeji Adegoke; Jorge Palacios; Claire M. Gillan; Derek Richards (2023). The Effectiveness of Low‑Intensity Psychological Interventions for Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Long‑Term Conditions: A Real‑World Naturalistic Observational Study in IAPT Integrated Care. Read here

Selin Akkol‐Solakoglu; David Hevey (2023). Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavioural Therapy For Depression And Anxiety In Breast Cancer Survivors: Results From A Randomised Controlled Trial. Read here


Catalina Cumpanasoiu, Angel Enrique, Jorge Palacios, Daniel Duffy, ScottMcNamara, Derek Richards (2022). Trajectories Of Symptoms In Digital Interventions For Depression And Anxiety Using Routine Outcome Monitoring Data: A Secondary Analysis Study. Read here

Jorge Palacios, Adedeji Adegoke, Rebecca Wogan, Daniel Duffy, Caroline Earley, Nora Eilert, Angel Enrique, Sarah Sollesse, Judith Chapman, Derek Richards (2022). Comparison of outcomes across low-intensity psychological interventions for depression and anxiety within a stepped-care setting: A naturalistic cohort study using propensity score modelling. Read here 

Jorge Palacios; Katherine Young; Derek Richards; Michael Anselmo (2022). Estimating the economic benefits of iCBT: A mapping function to aid prediction of QALY gains from routinely collected data. Read here

Jorge E. Palacios, Angel Enrique, Olwyn Mooney, Simon Farrell, Caroline Earley, Daniel Duffy, Nora Eilert, Siobhan Harty, Ladislav Timulak, Derek Richards (2022). Durability of treatment effects following internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety delivered within a routine care setting. Request a copy

Nora Eilert, D. Couns. Psych.; Rebecca Wogan, MSc; Aisling Leen, BA; Derek Richards, PhD (2022). Internet-delivered interventions for depression and anxiety symptoms in children and young people: systematic review and meta-analysis. Request a copy


Rebecca Wogan, Angel Enrique, Adedeji Adegoke, Caroline Earley, Sarah Sollesse , Sophie Gale, Marie Chellingsworth, Derek Richards (2021). Internet-delivered CBT Intervention (Space for sleep) for Insomnia in a Routine Care Setting: Results from an Open Pilot Study. Request a Copy 

Nora Eilert; Ladislav Timulak; Daniel Duffy; Caroline Earley; Angel Enrique; Polly Kennedy; Clare McCormack; Jorge Palacios; Rebecca Wogan; Derek Richards (2021). Following up internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT): A longitudinal qualitative investigation of clients' usage of CBT skills. Request a Copy

Matthew Franklin; Angel Enrique; Jorge Palacios; Derek Richards. Psychometric assessment of EQ‑5D‑5L and ReQoL measures in patients
with anxiety and depression: construct validity and responsiveness. Request a copy

Camille Nadal, Caroline Earley, Angel Enrique, Noemi Vigano, Corina Sas,Derek Richards, Gavin Doherty (2021).  Integration of a smartwatch within an internet-delivered intervention for depression: Protocol for a feasibility randomized controlled trial on acceptance. Request a copy 

Nora Eilert, Angel Enrique, Rebecca Wogan, Olwyn Mooney, Ladislav Timulak, Derek Richards. The effectiveness of Internet‐delivered treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: an updated systematic review and meta‐analysis. Request a copy

Angel Enrique Roig, PhD; Olwyn Mooney, MSc; Alicia Salamanca-Sanabria, PhD; Chi Tak Lee, MSc; SimonFarrell, MSc; Derek Richards, PhD (2021). Assessing the Efficacy and Acceptability of a Web-Based Intervention for Resilience Among College Students: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. Request a copy


Chien I., MEng; Enrique A., Ph.D.; Palacios J., MD, Ph.D.; Regan T., Ph.D.; Keegan D., MSc; Carter D., Ph.D.; Tschiatschek S., Ph.D.; Nori A., Ph.D.; Thieme A., Ph.D.; Richards D., Ph.D.; Doherty D., DPhil; Belgrave D., PhD. A machine learning approach to understanding patterns of engagement with internet-delivered mental health interventions. Request a copy

A. Enrique, O. Mooney, A. Salamanca-Sanabria, C.T. Lee, S. Farrell, D. (2020). Richards. Assessing the efficacy and acceptability of an internet-delivered intervention for resilience among college students: A pilot randomised control trial protocol. Request a copy

Richards D, Enrique A, Eilert N, Franklin M, Palacios JE, Duffy D., Earley C, Chapman J, Jell G, Sollesse S & Timulak L (2020). A pragmatic randomized waitlist-controlled effectiveness and cost-effectiveness trial of digital interventions for depression and anxiety. Request a copy

J.Jardine, C. Earley, D. Richards, L. Timulak, J E Palacios, D. Duffy, K. Tierney, G. Doherty (2020). The experience of guided online therapy: a longitudinal, qualitative analysis of client feedback in a naturalistic RCT. Request a copy



Duffy, D., Enrique, A, Connell, S., Connolly, C. & Richards, D. (2019). Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy as a Prequel to Face-To-Face Therapy for Depression and Anxiety: A Naturalistic Observation. Request a copy

Enrique A, Palacios JE, Ryan H, Richards D (2019). Exploring the Relationship Between Usage and Outcomes of an Internet-Based Intervention for Individuals With Depressive Symptoms: Secondary Analysis of Data From a Randomized Controlled Trial. Request a copy

Salamanca-Sanabria, A., Richards, D., & Timulak, L. (2019). Adapting an internet-delivered intervention for depression for a Colombian college student population: An illustration of an integrative empirical approach. Internet Interventions, 15, 76-86. doi: Request a copy


Book Chapters

Richards, D., Enrique, E., & Palacios, J. (in press). Internet-delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. In S. Parry (Ed.), The Handbook of Brief Therapies: A Practical Guide. London: Sage.

Richards., D., Enrique, A., Palacios, J., & Duffy, D. (2018). Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. In Ömer Şenormancı & G. Şenormancı (Eds.), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Clinical Applications (pp. 223-238). Netherlands: InTech. Request a copy

Peer-reviewed journals

Richards D, Duffy D, Burke J, Anderson M, Connell S, Timulak L (2018). Supported Internet-Delivered Cognitive Beavior for Adults with Severe Depressive Symptoms: a Secondary Analysis. Request a Copy

Wright, J.H., Owen, J.J., Richards, D., Ells, T.D., Richardson, T., Brown, G.K., Barrett, M., Rasku, M.A., Polser, G., Thase, M. (in press). Computer-assisted Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.  Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.

Salamanca-Sanabria, A., Richards, D., Timulak, L., (in review). Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavioural internet-delivered treatment for depression: A systematic review. Global Mental Health.

Richards, D., Duffy., D., Blackburn, B., Earley, C., Enrique, A., Palacios, J., Franklin, M., Clarke, G., Sollesse, S., Connell, S., Timulak, L. (2018). Digital IAPT: The effectiveness & cost-effectiveness of Internet-delivered interventions for depression and anxiety disorders in the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies programme: study protocol for a randomised control trial. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1). doi:10.1186/s12888-018-1639-5. Request a copy

Salamanca-Sanabria, A., Richards, D., Timulak, L., Castro-Camacho, L., Mojica-Perilla, M., & Parra-Villa, Y. (2018). Assessing the efficacy of a culturally adapted cognitive behavioural internet-delivered treatment for depression: protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1). doi:10.1186/s12888-018-1634-x.  Request a copy

Richards, D., Dowling, M., O’Brien, E., Viganó, N., Timulak, L. (2018) Significant events in an internet-delivered (Space from Depression) intervention for depression. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 18, 35-48. doi:10.1002/capr.12142.  Request a copy

Wells, M.J., Owen, J.J., McCray, L.W., Bishop, L.B., Ells, T.D., Brown, G.K., Richards, D., Thase, M.E., Wright, J.H. (2018). Computer-assisted cognitive-behaviour therapy for depression in primary care: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Primary Care Companion for the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Request a copy

Richards, D., Duffy, D., Burke, J., Anderson-Gibbons, M., Connell, S., Timulak, L. (in press). A secondary analysis of internet-delivered cognitive-behaviour treatment for adults with severe depressive symptoms. JMIR Ment Health. doi:10.2196/10204

Enrique, A., Burke, J., Richards, D., Timulak, L. (2018) Quality of life outcomes in internet-delivered (Space from depression) treatment for depression. Applied Research in Quality of Life.  Request a copy

Burke, J., Richards, D., & Timulak, L. Helpful and Hindering Events in Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioural Treatment for Generalized Anxiety. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 1-14. doi:10.1017/S1352465818000504.  Request a copy


Earley, C., Richards, D., Timulak, L. (2017). Preventing depression: examining the benefits of depression-focused iCBT for participants who do not meet clinical thresholds. Internet Interventions Request a copy

Richards, D., Murphy, T., Viganó, N., Timulak, L., Doherty, G., Sharry, J., & Hayes, C. (2017) Acceptability, satisfaction and perceived efficacy of “Space from Depression” an internet-delivered treatment for depression. Internet Interventions, 5, 12-22. doi:10.1016/j.invent.2016.06.007. 

Palacios, J., Lee, G. A., Duaso, M., Clifton, A., Norman, I. J., Richards, D., & Barley, E. A. (2017). Internet-Delivered Self-management Support for Improving Coronary Heart Disease and Self-management-Related Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, Publish Ahead of Print. doi:10.1097/jcn.0000000000000392.  Request a copy


Walsh, A., & Richards, D. (2016) Experiences and Engagement with the Design Features and Strategies of an Internet-Delivered Treatment Programme for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Service-Based Evaluation. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. doi:10.1080/03069885.2016.1153039.  Request a copy

Richards, D, Richardson, T., Timulak, L., Vigano, N, Mooney, J. Sharry, J., Doherty, G, & Hayes, C. (2016). Predictors of depression severity in a treatment-seeking sample. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology. doi: Request a copy

Richards, D, Richardson, T., Timulak, L., Vigano, N, Mooney, J. (2016).  Predictores de la gravedad de la depresión en personas adultas que buscan tratamiento. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology. doi:  Request a copy

Frazier, P., Richards, D., Mooney, J., Hofmann, S. G., Beidel, D., Palmieri, P. A., & Bonner, C. (2016). Acceptability and proof of concept of internet-delivered treatment for depression, anxiety, and stress in university students: protocol for an open feasibility trial. Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 2(1). doi:10.1186/s40814-016-0068-9. Request a copy

Richards, D., Timulak, L., Rashleigh, C., McLoughlin, O., Colla, A., Joyce, C., Duffy, D., Anderson-Gibbons, M. (2016). Effectiveness of an Internet-delivered intervention for generalized anxiety disorder in routine care: a randomised controlled trial in a student population. Internet Interventions, 6, 80-88. doi:10.1016/j.invent.2016.10.003. Request a copy


Richards, D., Timulak, L., O’Brien, E., Hayes, C., Vigano, N., Sharry, J., & Doherty, G. (2015). A randomized controlled trial of an internet-delivered treatment: Its potential as a low-intensity community intervention for adults with symptoms of depression. Behaviour Research Therapy, 75, 20-31. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2015.10.005.  Request a copy

Richards, D., Richardson, T., Timulak, L., & McElvaney, J. (2015). The efficacy of online delivered treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Internet Interventions, 2(3), 272-282. doi:10.1016/j.invent.2015.07.003. Request a copy

Barley, E. A., Clifton, A., Lee, G., Norman, I., O’Callaghan, D., Tierney, K., Richards, D. (2015) The Space From Heart Disease Intervention for People With Cardiovascular Disease and Distress: A Mixed-Methods Study. JMIR Res Protocols, 4(3), e81. doi: 10.2196/resprot.4280. Request a copy


Morrison, C. & Doherty, G. (2014). Analysing Engagement in a Web-based Intervention Platform through Visualising Log-Data, Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(11):e252. doi: 10.2196/jmir.3575 . Request a copy

Richards, D., Timulak, L., Doherty, G., Sharry, J., Colla, A., Joyce, C., & Hayes, C. (2014). Internet-delivered treatment: its potential as a low-intensity community intervention for adults with symptoms of depression: protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry, 14(147), 1-11. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-14-147. Request a copy

Richards, D., Timulak, L., Doherty, G., Sharry, J., McLoughlin, O., Rashleigh, C., Joyce, C. (2014). Low-intensity internet-delivered treatment for generalized anxiety symptoms in routine care: protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 15(145), 1-11. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-15-145. Request a copy

Barley, E. A., Clifton, A., Enright, A., Lee, G., Norman, I., Richards, D. (2014). An online intervention for wellbeing and self-management of CVD: Results from a feasibility trial.

Richards, D., & Salamanca, A. (2014). Point-prevalence of depression and associated risk factors. The journal of psychology: Interdisciplinary and applied, 148(3), 305-326. Request a copy


Sharry, J., Davidson, R., McLoughlin, O & Doherty, G. (2013). A Service-Based Evaluation of a Therapist-Supported Online Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Programme for Depression, J Med Internet Res, 15(6):e121. doi:10.2196/jmir.2248. Request a copy

Richards, D., Timulak, L., & Hevey, D. (2012). A comparison of two online cognitive-behavioural interventions for symptoms of depression in a student population: The role of therapist responsiveness. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 13(3), 184-193. doi: 10.1080/14733145.2012.733715 Request a copy

Richards, D. (2013). Developments in technology-delivered psychological interventions. Universitas Psychologica, 12(2), 571-579. Request a copy

Richards, D., & Viganó, N. (2013). Online Counseling: A Narrative and Critical Review of the Literature. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(9), 994-1011. doi:10.1002/jclp.21974. Request a copy


Doherty, G., Coyle, D. & Sharry, J. (2012). Engagement with Online Mental Health Interventions: An Exploratory Clinical Study of a Treatment for Depression , ACM CHI 2012 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Austin, TX, ACM, pp.1421-1430. doi 10.1145/2207676.2208602. Request a copy

Richards, D., & Richardson, T. (2012). Computer-based psychological treatments for depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(4), 329-342. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2012.02.004. Request a copy

Richards, D., & Timulak, L. (2012). Client-identified helpful and hindering events in therapist-delivered vs. self-administered online cognitive-behavioural treatments for depression in college students. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 25(3), 251-262. doi: 10.1080/09515070.2012.703129. Request a copy

Richards, D., & Timulak, L. (2012). Satisfaction with therapist-delivered vs. self-administered online cognitive-behavioural treatments for depression symptoms in college students. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 41(2), 193-207. doi: 10.1080/03069885.2012.726347. Request a copy


Richards, D. (2011). Prevalence and clinical course of depression: a review. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(7), 1117-1125. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.07.004. Request a copy


Doherty, G., Coyle, D. & Matthews, M. (2010). Design and Evaluation Guidelines for Mental Health Technologies, Interacting with Computers, 22(4), pp.43-252. doi 10.1016/j.intcom.2010.02.006. Request a copy


Coyle, D., Doherty, G., Sharry, J. & Matthews, M. (2007). Computers in Talk-Based Mental Health Interventions, Interacting with Computers, 19(4), pp.545-562. doi 10.1016/j.intcom.2007.02.001.   Request a copy